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What is a Resistor ?

In many circuit applications, resistance must be inserted into the circuit in the purpose of reducing the current or to produce a desired IR voltage drop.  The component used for this are resistor and labeled with the letter R in the circuit diagrams.  Resistor are the most commonly found component in all electronic equipment, from a small AM radio to a color television receiver. The common type of resistor is the carbon resistor as shown in the image.


The two main characteristics of a resistor are its R in ohms and the wattage rating.  Resistors available values ranges from a fraction of an ohms up to many mega ohms.  The power rating can be as high as several watts or as low as 1/10 W.

The power rating of a resistor is important because it specifies the maximum wattage the resistor can dissipate without producing excessive heat that can damage the component and or other components in the circuit.  Dissipation means that the power is wasted as I2R loss. Since the result heat is not used, the generated heat which is usually too much can make the resistor burn open.

When power dissipation is about 5 watts or more wirewound resistors are used, specially in devices that require high current handling capability, heat dissipation and resistance stability and accuracy.  For 2W or less, carbon resistor are preferable because they are smaller and cost less.

Carbon resistors are most common in electronic equipment because they are smaller and cost less as compared to wirewound resistor, Usually higher values have smaller wattage because they have less current.

Both carbon and wirewound resistors can be either fixed or variable.  A fixed resistor have a specific R that cannot be adjusted, while a variable resistor can be adjusted for any value between zero ohms up to its maximum R value.

Carbon composition variable resistors are commonly used for control, such as the volume control in a radio receiver or the contrast control in a television receiver.  An application for a variable resistor is to divide the voltage from a power supply.

1. WIREWOUND RESISTOR:  Resistance wire such as manganin wrapped around an insulating core, Commonly used insulating materials are cement, porcelain, or just plain compressed paper.

The wire is bare, but usually the entire unit is encased in an insulator. The length of wire used and its specific resistivity determine the resistance of the unit.

Wirewound ResistorSince wirewound resistors are generally for low-resistance high-power applications, wirewound resistors are available in power ratings from 5W to several hundred watts, with resistance range of less than 1Ω to several thousand ohms. In addition, wirewound precision resistors are used where accurate, stable resistance values are require.

2. CARBON COMPOSITION RESISTOR: This type of resistor are made of finely divided carbon or graphite mixed with a powdered insulating material in the proportions needed for the desired value. The resistor element is usually enclosed in a plastic case for insulation and mechanical strength.

Joined to the two end of the carbon resistance elements are metal caps with leads of tinned copper wire for soldering the resistor connections into a circuits. Carbon resistors are commonly available in resistance values of 1/10, 1/8, ¼, ½, 1 or 2 watts.

3. CARBON FILM RESISTOR: Carbon film resistors are manufactured by depositing a carbon film on a ceramic substrate. In many ways semilar to carbon composition resistors, they can be interchange with each other, the cost is less than for the hot-molded carbon-composition type.
These are form by means of vacuum deposition, a process by which any of the number of different metal or metal oxide films are deposited on a suitable insulating mandrel or core.

Nickel and chromium are deposited on the alumina ceramic core and the unit is then subjected to laser trimming. Metal film resistors are laser trimmed or helixed to obtain the desired resistance value before the protective insulation coat is applied.


  1. METAL-OXIDE DEPOSITION — This process makes use of a chemical vapor deposite to a tin-oxide film onto a glass substrate. Although this tin oxide resistor is similar in performance to evaporated or sputtered metal film, the technique is obviously not capable of achieving the level of precision possible with other thin-film process.
  2. BULK METAL. — This process produces a flat instead of cylindrical elements. It is an expensive process but produces resistor with a tight tolerance and excellent temperature coefficient of resistance characteristics, used exclusively for ultra-precision applications. This process entails the laminations of metal foil to a substrate and later etched chemically to produce a serpentine rather than helical conduction path.
  3. THICK FILM — This process coats ceramic substrate with a glass-metal matrix material. Later, it is fired at an extremely high temperature to produce a metallic film. Unlike in other processes wherein the resistive elements are subjected to a very temperature in order to vaporize materials, the thick film process does it to cure.
  4. VACUUM DEPOSITION — Also known as evaporated metal film, it is the original metal film resistor manufacturing process. This techniques superheats a nickel chromium alloy wire by resistance or electron — beam heating in a vacuum. As the alloy evaporizes, it is deposited on ceramic substrates which are then loaded into a vacuum container. To achieve the resistance ranges, manufacturers make use of contaminants called dopants.
  5. SPUTTERING — This is a more recently developed techniques and closely related to vacuum deposition. It is likewise yields a product consisting of nichrome resistor on a ceramic substrate.5. CERMIT-FILM RESISTORS: These have a carbon coating fired onto a solid ceramic substrate.  The purpose is to have a exact or precise R values and greater stability with heat.  They are often made in a small square, with leads to fit a PC board.  A flat package with multiple leads can be used for several resistors in one unit.


    Variable resistors can be wirewound or a carbon type.  Inside the metal case, the control has a circular disk that is the carbon-composition resistance element.  Joined to the two end are the outside soldering-lug terminals 1 and 3.  The middle lug 2 is connected to the variable arm contacting the resistor element by a metal spring wiper.  As the shaft of the control is rotated, the variable arm moves the wiper to make contact at different points.

    When the contact moves closer to one end, the resistance decreases between this end and the variable arm.  The variable resistance is zero when the wiper contacts this end but is maximum with the variable arm  at the opposite end.  Between the two outside ends, the resistance is not variable but always has the maximum resistance of the control.


    In addition to having the required resistance value in ohms, a resistor should  have a wattage rating high enough to dissipate the I2R power produced by the current flowing through the resistance, without becoming too hot.  If a resistor becomes too hot because of excessive power dissipation, it can change appreciably in resistance value or burn.

    The power rating is a physical  property depending on the resistor construction, specifically physical size.

            1. The larger the physical size of the resistor indicates a higher power rating.

            2. Higher-wattage resistors can operate at higher temperature.

            3. Wirewound resistors are physically larger with higher wattage rating than carbon resistor.

    For both types, a higher power rating allows a higher voltage rating.  The rating gives the highest voltage that may be applied across the resistor without internal arching.  In wirewound resistors, excessive voltage can produce an arc between turns; in carbon resistors, the arc is between carbon granules.


    In some cases two or more resistors are combines in series or parallel to obtain a desired resistance value with a higher wattage rating as shown.

    series parallel resistors

    The total resistance depend on the series and parallel connections. However, the combination has a power rating equal to the sum of the individual wattage ratings, whether the resistors are in parallel or series. The reason is that the total physical size increases with each added resistor, Such combinations can be used to obtain a higher power rating.

    Figure a, the two equal resistors in series double the resistance. Also the power rating of the combination is twice the value for one resistor.Figure b, the two equal resistor in parallel have one-half the resistance. However the combined power rating is still twice the value for one resistor.

    Figure c, the series parallel combination of four resistors makes RT the same on each resistor. However, the total power rating is four times the value for one resistor.


    An open resistor reads infinitely high ohms. For some reason, infinite ohms is often confused with zero ohms. Remember though that infinite ohms means an open circuit. The current is zero but the resistance is infinitely high. Furthermore, it is practically impossible for a resistor to become short-circuited in itself. The resistor may be short circuited by some other part of the circuit, however, the construction of resistors is such that the trouble they develop is an open circuit, with infinitely high resistance in ohms.


How To Burn ISO Image File To An Optical Disc In Windows

An ISO image file is an exact representation of a CD, DVD or Blu-Ray Disc in a single archive file, these files are either downloaded online or created through an ISO image file app such as ImgBurn, BurnAware, ISODisk, ISO Recorder or other ISO image file creation apps. After creating or downloading ISO image file you can then mount it on a virtual CD/DVD drive as if it’s a real disc or burn it to disc and use it in replace of your original disc

How To Download Video From YouTube

If you often visit YouTube to watch online videos then you probably want to view it offline too or want to view it on other devices such as your phone. You want to view YouTube video offline especially if you have a very slow internet connection at home or want to view the video in HD format. Unfortunately, YouTube is designed to be viewed or watched on their website and not to be downloaded, that’s why you can’t find any download link for downloading videos on YouTube. Fortunately for us there are lots of software and websites that we can use as a downloader for YouTube videos.

Saving YouTube Video Using Online YouTube Download site

There are websites that caters in downloading YouTube video, all you have to do is copy the video URL and paste it on their download bar then clicking on the download button. To download video from YouTube follow these simple steps.

  1. Go to YouTube and play the video you want to download, copy the video URL from the YouTube webpage address bar as shown in the sample below.
  2. Go to and paste the YouTube video URL on the download bar and click on the download button, after clicking the download button you will be shown with available video format that you can select from as the video format to save such as FLV, MP4, 3GP and other video format. Click on the Video format you want on the Download link column and select where you want to save your video download.

    Aside from online YouTube download site, you can also download YouTube downloader software and install it on your computer, during installation watch out for any attempt to install toolbars by the installer. You can uncheck any checkbox that wants you to install toolbar that can possibly change your default search page.

Free YouTube Downloader

Free YouTube Downloader is a free tool that will let you download YouTube video. To install the app you have to visit Free YouTube Downloader website and download the app. After Installing the app all you have to do is copy the YouTube video URL from and paste it on the YouTube URL box downloader then select the output format such as MP4, FLV, Xvid or other video format you want. You can also download video as an mp3 audio instead of video format.

YTD Video Downloader

YTD Video Downloader is also a free tool for downloading video from YouTube, but if you want additional functionality of YTD Video Downloader such as automatic conversion of video and want to download multiple videos simultaneously then you have to upgrade the software to PRO version. The basic free functionality of the software is good enough for you to download videos unless you want additional downloading functionality then upgrade to PRO version. Downloading video in YTD YouTube Downloader is almost the same with any other video downloader all you have to do is copy the video URL from YouTube and paste it in the Paste URL box then click on download.

How to download YouTube Video using YTD video downloader

After downloading your video from YouTube try VLC Media Player to play your videosbecause this software support almost all video format.

How To Promote Windows Server 2008 To Domain Controller

When a windows server family is freshly installed on a computer it first work as a client computer or a standalone server. When you have a standalone server you can promote it as a domain controller by installing Active Directory Services (ADS) or Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) on a windows server 2003/2008 operating system respectively. By promoting a standalone server to a domain controller it then allows administrator to manage the entire network such as adding user accounts and client computers from a central location such as the windows server terminal.

If you work as a system administrator or a network administrator promoting a windows server machine is a common task.

Before Promoting Your Windows Server 2008

The server the administrator plan to promote must have a static IP address assigned to its Network Interface Card.

To begin promoting a computer with windows server 2008 installed to a domain controller.

Log in to Windows server 2008 with administrator account

Click on the Start Menu and type dcpromo on the Search box and press the enter key.

Wait for the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard to load.

On the Operating System Compatibility window click on the next button.

Select Create a new domain in a new forest radio button if the computer your installing the Active Directory Domain Services is the only domain controller in the network or select Existing forest radio button if there are other domain controller in the network.

On the “Name the Forest Root Domain” type the name of the new domain in the text box and click on the next button.

On the “Set Forest Functional Level” leave the default value as is, click on the next button to continue.

On the “Set Domain Functional Level” leave the default value as is and click on the next button to continue.

On the “Additional Domain Controller Options” make sure that DNS server checkbox is checked, click on the next button continue.

If for instance you have not assigned a static IP address on your Network Interface Card you’ll be prompted with the Static IP Assignment message box. Click on “No, I will assign static IP addresses to all physical network adapter” to manually assign static IP address to all network card but you have to restart Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard again. If you have already assigned static IP to all the network interface card you will not be prompted with this message.

Click Yes button to continue when the DNS warning box appear.

Select Database location, log file, and SYSVOL folder location in the field or leave the default as is, I recommend leaving the default value as is.

On the “Directory Services Restore Mode Administrator Password” type in your desired password on the Password and Confirm password box and click on the Next button to continue. This password will be used for restoring the Active Directory from backup in case of disaster

On the Summary windows review your current settings, when you click the Next button these settings will be applied to the Domain Controller. Click on the Next button to start the Active Directory Domain Controller Services installation process.

On the installation progress box check on the Reboot on Completion check box to automatically reboot Windows server 2008 machine when installation is completed successfully.

Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard in progress

Installation of Active Directory Domain Services is complete after Windows server 2008 restart


How to Set Up DHCP in Windows Server 2008

Configuring a DHCP server on your Windows 2008 server will allow you to configure client computer network setting at the DHCP server provided that the client computer is set to obtain an IP address automatically.

Before beginning to configure your DHCP server verify that:

The computer you want to configure DHCP has a static IP address assigned to it.

All existing disk volume on your server uses NTFS file system, NTFS file system are more secure than FAT32 file system since FAT32 don’t support file and folder compression, disk quotas, and file encryption.

Updated Windows Server 2008.

To begin configuring your Windows 2008 DHCP server

Click on Start then click on Administrative Tools and finally click on Server Manager.

Windows Server 2008 Administrative Tools

On the Server Manager Window right click on Role and then select Add Roles

Server Manager

On the Before You Begin Window click on Next button to continue

On the Add Roles Wizard Window check DHCP Server checkbox and click on the Next button to continue

On the Select Network Connection Bindings Window check the network connection to bind by clicking on the checkbox beside the network IP address then click on the Next button to continue

On the Specify IPv4 DNS Server Settings Window specify your DNS server, which is in this case is the same machine.


On the Specify IPv4 WINS Server Settings Window leave the default value as is just click on the Next button to continue

Specify IPv4 WINS Server Settings – Configuring DHCP

On the Add or Edit DHCP Scopes Window click on the Add button to add a DHCP scope

Add or Edit DHCP scopes – Configuring DHCP


After clicking on the Add button you now have to give values for the:

Scope Name: Give your scope a name

Starting IP Address: Enter the Start address or the beginning IP address you want client computer to use
Ending IP Address: Enter the End address or the last IP address you want client computer to use
Subnet Mask: Enter the network subnet mask, usualy with 254 usable IPs is enough, but if you have a larger network infrastructure with more than 254 client computers you can use other value such as to have a 510 usable IPs or to have 65,534 usable IPs.
Default Gateway (optional): Enter your network gateway, usually your router IP address or your internet router

Click on OK when your done, the preceeding screen just requires you to click on the next button and accept the default value

  1. Confirm your installation selection and click on the Install button
  2. After clicking the install button DHCP server will be installed on the machine, wait till the process is complete
  3. After the installation process is complete you can now start managing your DHCP server



How to Setup A Home Wireless Network

Using a wireless network in your home or office is more convenient than using a lan cable connected to a router or a switches. You can do all what a wired network can do such as sharing internet access, files sharing, printer sharing, online games, browse computers connected to your network and some other stuff what a wired network can do. A wired network cable can run up to hundred meters before signal is lost and requires a repeater while a wireless network will depend on the technology the router is using such as Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output or “MIMO” and Wireless-A / B/ G and N technology.

MIMO is a WIFI technology that uses multiple transmitter and reciever to create a robust signal that travels farther, MIMO uses multipath where signals bounces off walls and ceiling so it reduces dead spots on your home network, so with this technology on your router you’ll always have a good signal within your home network, so check the router you’ll be buying to have this technology.

After you have setup your wireless network you can now sit anywhere in your home using your wireless capable device such as your laptop browsing the internet or accessing your files on the other computer within your network, it is much convenient than a cable plugged into your laptop.

What you need to setup your home wireless network.


Wireless Router: Your wireless router will be responsible for transmitting the signal coming from your internet connection or whatever you’re accessing from other computer and broadcast it over the air, it’s also within the router where you will setup your internet connection, DHCP connection for automatic IP configuration on client computers, set your WIFI access key or “Passphrase” and other configuration required to have a WIFI connection. Some popular wireless router brands are Linksys, D-link, TP-Link, Netgear.

There are four different wireless networking technologies: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n while wireless G (802.11g) and Wireless N (802.11n) are the most common router technology, they offer excellent performance and are backward compatible with older WIFI devices.

Note: Some wireless router this days don’t show their wireless antenna because they use internal antenna.

2. Your operating System that Support Wireless networking.

Windows operating Systems such as Windows xp, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 fully support wireless networking. It is always recommended to update your windows operating system to the latest Windows update for security reasons although you still can setup your wireless connection even you don’t update your windows. Updating windows will secure you from hackers and viruses since you will be exposing your computer to the network or to the World Wide Web, also always update your antivirus definition and be sure to activate your windows firewall for maximum security. Remember that when you connect to the network or to the internet you will be exposing your computer to the people within your network or to the world wide web.

3.A broadband or DSL modem: Usually this is not required if you plan for a home network only and don’t want to be connected to the internet, but if you require an internet connection then a modem is required. Broadband or DSL modem are usually supplied by the Internet Service Provider and are not readily available to purchase in a typical computer shop. Many internet service providers this days offer wireless router/modem this means that a router and a modem in one device, in this case you don’t need to buy a separate wireless router.

4.Your Desktop computer with Wireless adapter and or Laptop computer.

Newer desktop computers specially branded ones are usually equipped with wireless adapter card and they are wireless ready PC’s, if your desktop computer is not equipped with wireless card then you have to buy a wireless adapter card in the form of PCI card or a USB, I suggest buying a USB wireless network adapter since you don’t have to open your computer to install the device, all you have to do is plug-in the USB to a USB port and you’re done.

It is easy to distinguish a PC with wireless card by just looking at the back of your computer if you see an antenna just like the antenna of a wireless router then it has a wireless adapter card. A laptop computer is usually equipped with a wireless adapter card and all you have to do is switch on the wireless adapter card on your laptop.

5. Router Wireless User Manual.
Familiarize your router by reading your router user manual.

Getting Ready
If all of the required to build a Home Wireless Network are available, then you can now continue in setting up your wireless network, follow the steps below in configuring your wireless network.

1. If you are connected to the internet disconnect your modem so that you are able to use the LAN port on your computer, skip this step if you don’t have internet connection.

2. Connect to your router by connecting the RJ45 connector of your LAN cable to the LAN port on your router and the other end to the LAN port on your desktop computer you should see the LED light up at the front panel of your router corresponding to the port number where you plug in the cable.

3. Connect your modem cable to the WAN or Internet port of your router and wait for a while, when your router is connected to the internet the WAN or the Internet LED at the front panel of your router should light up.

4.Connect to your router setting by opening your favorite internet browser and typing http:// and the ip address of the router at the address bar and typing the username and password. See list below for default username and password for different router brand name.

Router Brand Address Username password
TP-Link admin admin
D-Link admin admin
Linksys admin admin
3Com admin admin
Netgear admin Password

5. I will be using Linksys router as a guide, what you see on your router could be similar with mine, almost all router have almost the same setup.

Click on the Basic Setup under the Setup Tab, refer to your router user manual if you have different router , in this tab you can setup your internet connection, if you use DSL to connect to the internet then select PPPOE or ask your Internet Service Provider what credential you should put in the box.

Router Basic Setup

The IP address and Subnet Mask will be for the router IP address, if you want to change the default IP address then you can change it here.

DHCP Server : Set this to Enable to set the router as DHCP server it will be the router which give an IP address, subnet mask and Gateway to the Client PC connected to the router. Setting this to enable will spare you the hassle of setting each individual client pc I.P address.

Save your settings when your done

6. After setting the Basic Setup you now have to setup the wireless setting of your router, look for Wireless Tab on the router and select basic wireless settings.

Router Wireless setting

Network Mode : Select the wireless standard  to use for your network on the dropdown box such as Wireless-A / B /G or N. Select Wireless N or the default setting on your router.

Network Name (SSID) : The SSID is the network name shared among all points in a wireless network. The SSID must be identical for all devices in the wireless network. It is case-sensitive and must not exceed 32 characters you can use any of the characters on the keyboard. The SSID name is what you see when you scan for available wireless network.

SSID Broadcast : When scanning for available wireless network you’ll see the SSID of your network if the SSID broadcast is enable else set to disable if you don’t want to broadcast your router SSID.

Save your settings when your done

7. After you have setup the basic wireless settings, click the wireless security tab, in here you will be able to setup wireless security mode and passphrase.

Router security setting

Security Mode : Select the type of security for your Wifi such as WEP, WPA-Personal, WPA Enterprise, WPA2 Personal or WPA2 Enterprise. Select WPA2 personal for your wifi since WPA2 have the strongest encryption method.

Encryption : Select the wifi encryption type default encryption will do the job. The value for this could be TKIP or AES.

Passphrase: When someone detect your wifi and wanted to connect to your wireless LAN, they have to know the passphrase of your wifi in other word this will serve as the password for your network so that no unauthorized user will be able to join your network.

When you have finished setting up your router save your setting and restart your router. Disconnect the LAN cable to your desktop or laptop same with the router , on your Wireless enable devices such as your laptop or desktop try to scan your network by clicking wireless icon on the taskbar

In Windows 7 or whatever operating system you’re using, scan for wireless network, all available wireless network will be shown including those wireless network that don’t broadcast there SSID. Other network are those wireless network that don’t broadcast there SSID while those wireless network that broadcast there SSID are shown with the SSID name such as PHA-NET as shown in the Image.

Click on the wireless network that you want to connect to, click on connect and type the passphrase same as what you have type in the passphrase box in the security tab on your router, remember that it is case sensitive.

When you have successfully connected to your wireless router you will then be able to browse your network and browse the internet if you have connected a modem on your router and set the settings properly.

When you are unable to browse a particular network pc but you can see the name of the PC in your network neigborhood then the cause could be that the firewall on that pc is enabled or an antivirus software is preventing you from accessing this pc. This is for security reason but if you really need to access such pc you can disable the firewall or add your IP address on the security rules for allowed inbound and ourbound connection.

How To Setup Your PC As A Wireless Access Point In Windows 7

Do you have wireless devices such as laptop and smart phone and want it to browse the internet but don’t have a router to do the job? This is possible in Windows 7 provided that you have at least a wireless adapter and an Ethernet port connected to the internet or a USB device with 3G or 4G connections.

To setup your computer act as a Wireless Access Point (WAP) and let other Wi-Fi devices connect to it, first of you have to make sure that.

The computer you’re going to setup as a wireless access point has a wireless adapter and a Ethernet port or a USB device with 3G or 4G connection.

  1. To begin click on Start > Control Panel and click on Network and Sharing Center, if you can’t find Network and sharing center make sure that Category view is in “Large Icon” or “Small Icon”. In the Network and Sharing Center click on Change Adapter setting.
  2. In the Network Connection Panel you should see a Wireless network connection, this device will act as the access point and let other Wi-Fi devices connect to it. Aside from wireless network connection there should also be a local area connection that is connected to the internet or a USB 3G/4G connection.
  3. Go back to Network and Sharing Center panel and click on “Setup a new connection or network”. Under the Set Up a Connection or Network click on “Set up a wireless ad hoc (computer-to-computer) network Set up a temporary network for sharing files or an Internet connection” and click on the Next button.
  4. On the next screen click the Next button to continue.
  5. Next you’ll be ask to give your network a name and choose security options. The network name should contain 1 to 32 characters and it is case sensitive, the name you enter here will be the Wi-Fi network name you’ll see when you scan for available Wi-Fi network. Next select the security type and type in your desire security key or passphrase.Check the “Save this network” check box to save your network name on the Wireless network connection, unchecking this checkbox will remove your network name on the Wireless Network Connection list when you disconnect the network, so you have to set up again the Wireless ad hoc connection if you wish to reconnect the device to the network. Click the next button when you finished configuring your Wi-Fi access point.
  6. After clicking the next button Windows will prompt you that your network is ready to use.
  7. Turn on Internet connection sharing to share your internet connection with other Wi-Fi devices connected on your Wireless access point. To turn on Internet connection sharing right click on the “Local Area Connection” under the Network connection panel and click on “Properties” then click “Sharing” tab and check the “Allow other network users to connect through this computer’s Internet connection” checkbox then click the OK button or if you can see the “Turn on Internet connection sharing” shown in step 6 click on it to enable ICS.Internet connection sharing – network and sharing

    Note: After you have set up your pc as a wireless access point and yet you’re unable to connect to the internet please make sure that your PC firewall or your Antivirus is not blocking Internet Connection Sharing.

    Antivirus firewall setup

    Note: Android device might not see the Wireless Access Point you just created, you can also use third party software such as virtual router to share your internet with other Wi-Fi devices for better compatibility with other Wi-Fi devices.

How To Change or Add IP Address On Your Windows Machine

What Is An I.P Address

As an important distinction to identify a computer machine connected to a network an Internet Protocol (I.P) is used and not the machine itself.  Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) uses a 32 bit address to identify a machine on a network and to the network it is attached. IP address is the set of number we usually see on our workstation or terminals connected to the network such as, these IP address should be unique to every workstation to be able to establish a connection otherwise there would be an IP conflict on the network in which the machine is attached. IP addresses are 4 sets of 8bit for a total of 32 bits these bits are separated by period and are written out in their decimal equivalent.

The network Information Center (NIC) assigns the I.P address, but if not connected to the internet the network can determine its own numbering through DHCP or manually assigning a IP address.  There are five classes of I.P addresses with each used depending on the size of the network. These classes are Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E. The class can be determined from the first three (high-order) bits.

Class Leading Bits Network Local Address Start Address End Address
A 0 8 24
B 10 16 16
C 110 24 8
D 1110 Multicast Address
E 1111 Experimental

How to Change or Add IP Address

To be able to connect to your Local Area Network that don’t use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers you have to manually input the I.P address in your TCP/IP configuration on your Windows system but for server or router that is configured to use DHCP you don’t have to assign I.P address to your machine as the DHCP server will assign the I.P address automatically. There are instances that you may need to configure your system TCP/IP to be able to connect to your existing Local Area Network or to the internet, here are basic guide on how to change or add an IP address to your computer.

  1. In Windows Xp – Click on start > Control Panel then click on the classic view on the left pane, select Network connectionon the control panel list.
  2. In Windows 7 – Click on start > Control Panel In the view by:  on the upper right side of your control panel select large icon, then select Network and Sharing Center, on the left pane click on Change Adapter Settings and  click on Local Area Connection

  3. In Windows 8 – Right click on Start and select control panel, In the view by:  on the upper right side of control panel select large icon, Select Network and Sharing Center, on the left pane click on Change Adapter Settings and click on Ethernet.

Local Area Connection Configuration:

In the Local Area Connection status click on Properties, Inside the Local Area connection properties click on the networking tab and select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and then click on Properties.

Under General Tab click on Use the following IP address check box to be able to change or add an IP address.

IP Address: The IP address you want to give to your machine the IP address should be the same across your network except for the last sigment.

Subnet Mask: Enter your network subnet mask here example of a subnet mask is or by just clicking on the field, windows will automatically add the subnet mask depending on the I.P address you put on the IP address field.

Default Gateway: If you connect to the internet through a router the I.P address of the router must be entered here or if you use proxy server to connect to the internet input the IP address of your proxy server on this field, for a local area connection only you can leave this field blank.

Prefered DNS server: Usually same with default gateway if you connect to the internet through a router you can put the router I.P address or your network proxy server on this field or you can leave it blank if your network is for local area connection only.



How to Enable or Disable JavaScript in Different Web Browser

JavaScript are programming language used by most website authors to add interactivity or to add functionality to their own sites such as polls, validating form and much more. With JavaScript disabled this interactive features or added functionality of many website are also disabled or cannot be executed by the browser. You can enable or disable your browser JavaScript by following these simple steps.


1. In Internet Explorer click on tool on the top menu.
2. Choose Internet Options.
3. Click on the Security tab.
4. Click on Custom Level
5. Scroll down until you see the section labeled ‘Scripting.’
6.To enable Javascript click on the Enable radio button.
7. To disable Javascript click on the Disable radio button.
8. Click on OK and refresh your browser to see the effect.


1. In Mozilla Firefox click on tool on the top menu.
2. Click on Option.
3. Select Content on the navigation tab.
4. Click on Enable Javascript checkbox to Enable, click on the checkbox again to uncheck it and disable javascript.


Enable or Disable javascript in Safari
1. Apple safari click on the Edit menu.
2. Select on Preferences.
3. Inside preferences click on the Security tab.
4. Click on Enable Javascript checkbox to Enable, click on the checkbox again to uncheck it and disable javascript.


1. Click on Customize and control google chrome
2. Click on Settings
3. Scroll down at the bottom of the page and click on show advance settings

4. Under privacy
5.Click on Content Setting and scroll down to JavaScript
6. To enable JavaScript click on “Allow all sites to run JavaScript (Recommended)” radio button.
7. To disable Javascript click on “Do not allow any site to run JavaScript”