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Standard EIA Resistor Value

Table of Standard EIA Resistor Value
(Electronic Industries Association)
E6 (±20%) E12 (±10%) E24 (±5%) E48 (±2%) E96 (±1%) E192 (±0.5) E6 (±20%) E12 (±10% E24 (±5%) E48 (±2%) E96 (±1%) E192 (±0.5)
100 100 100 100 100 100 100 120 130 147 147 147
101 149
102 102 150 150 150 150 150
104 152
105 105 105 154 154 154
106 156
107 107 158 158
109 160 160
110 110 110 110 162 162 162
111 164
113 113 165 165
114 167
115 115 115 169 169 169
117 172
118 118 174 174
120 120 120 176
121 121 121 178 178 178
123 180 180 180
124 124 182 182
126 184
127 127 127 187 187 187
129 189
130 130 130 191 191
132 193
133 133 133 196 196 196
135 198
137 137 200 200 200
138 203
140 140 140 205 205 205
142 208
143 143 210 210
145 213
150 180 200 215 215 215 220 270 300 316 316 316
218 320
220 220 220 221 221 324 324
223 328
226 226 226 330 330 330 332 332 332
229 336
232 232 340 340
234 344
237 237 237 348 348 348
240 240 352
243 243 357 357
246 360 361
249 249 249 365 365 365
252 370
255 255 374 374
258 379
261 261 261 383 383 383
264 388
267 267 390 390 392 392
270 270 271 397
274 274 274 402 402 402
277 407
280 280 412 412
284 417
287 287 287 422 422 422
291 427
294 294 430 432 432
298 437
300 301 301 301 442 442 442
305 448
309 309 453 453
312 459
470 390 430 464 464 464 680 680 680 681 681 681
470 470 470 690
475 475 698 698
481 706
487 487 487 715 715 715
493 723
499 499 732 732
505 741
510 511 511 511 750 750 750 750
517 759
523 523 768 768
530 777
536 536 536 787 787 787
542 796
549 549 806 806
556 816
560 560 562 562 562 820 820 825 825 825
569 835
576 576 845 845
583 856
590 590 590 866 866 866
597 876
604 604 887 887
612 898
619 619 619 909 909 909
620 626 910 920
634 634 931 931
642 942
649 649 649 953 953 953
657 965
665 665 976 976
673 998

Standard Wire Gauge

Wire Number British Wire Gauge (SWG) American Wire Gauge (SWG)
Gauge No. Inches Equivalent in mm Inches Equivalent in mm Ohms per 1000 ft. of copper wire at 25C
7/0 0.5000 12.700
6/0 0.4640 11.786 0.5800 14.7320
5/0 0.4320 10.973 0.5165 13.1191
4/0 0.4000 10.160 0.4600 11.6840
3/0 0.3720 9.449 0.4096 10.4049
2/0 0.3480 8.839 0.3648 9.2658
1/0 0.3240 8.230 0.3249 8.2515
1 0.3000 7.620 0.2893 7.3481 0.1264
2 0.2760 7.010 0.2576 6.5437 0.1593
3 0.2520 6.401 0.2294 5.8273 0.2009
4 0.2320 5.893 0.2043 5.1892 0.2533
5 0.2120 5.385 0.1819 4.6203 0.3195
6 0.1920 4.877 0.1620 4.1148 0.4028
7 0.1760 4.470 0.1443 3.6652 0.5080
8 0.1600 4.064 0.1285 3.2639 0.6405
9 0.1440 3.658 0.1144 2.9058 0.8077
10 0.1280 3.251 0.1019 2.5883 1.0180
11 0.1160 2.946 0.0907 2.3038 1.2840
12 0.1040 2.642 0.0808 2.0523 1.6190
13 0.0920 2.337 0.0720 1.8288 2.0420
14 0.0800 2.032 0.0641 1.6281 2.5750
15 0.0720 1.829 0.0571 1.4503 3.2470
16 0.0640 1.626 0.0508 1.2903 4.0940
17 0.0560 1.422 0.0453 1.1506 5.1630
18 0.0480 1.219 0.0403 1.0236 6.5100
19 0.0400 1.016 0.0359 0.9119 8.2100
20 0.0360 0.914 0.0320 0.8128 10.350
21 0.0320 0.813 0.0285 0.7239 13.050
22 0.0280 0.711 0.0253 0.6426 16.460
23 0.0240 0.610 0.0226 0.5740 20.760
24 0.0220 0.599 0.0201 0.5105 26.170
25 0.0200 0.508 0.0179 0.4547 33.000
26 0.0180 0.457 0.0159 0.4039 41.620
27 0.0164 0.417 0.0142 0.3607 52.480
28 0.0148 0.376 0.0126 0.3200 66.170
29 0.0136 0.345 0.0113 0.2870 83.440
30 0.0124 0.315 0.0100 0.2540 105.20
31 0.0116 0.295 0.0089 0.2261 132.70
32 0.0108 0.274 0.0080 0.2032 167.30
33 0.0100 0.254 0.0071 0.1803 211.00
34 0.0092 0.234 0.0063 0.1600 266.00
35 0.0084 0.213 0.0056 0.1422 335.00
36 0.0076 0.193 0.0050 0.1270 423.00
37 0.0068 0.173 0.0045 0.1143 533.40
38 0.0060 0.152 0.0040 0.1016 672.60
39 0.0052 0.132 0.0035 0.0889 848.10
40 0.0048 0.122 0.0031 0.0787 1069.0
41 0.0044 0.112 0.0028 0.0711
42 0.0040 0.102 0.0025 0.0635
43 0.0036 0.091 0.0022 0.0559
44 0.0032 0.081 0.0020 0.0508
45 0.0028 0.071 0.0018 0.0457
46 0.0024 0.061 0.0016 0.0406
47 0.0020 0.051 0.0014 0.0356
48 0.0016 0.041 0.0012 0.0305
49 0.0012 0.031 0.0011 0.0279
50 0.0010 0.026 0.0010 0.0254
51 0.0009 0.0224
52 0.0008 0.0198
53 0.0007 0.0178
54 0.0006 0.0157
55 0.0006 0.0140
56 0.0004 0.0125


The table shows a list of standard wire sizes in the system known as the American Wire Gauge (AWG). The gage numbers specify the size of round wire in terms of its diameter and cross-sectional circular area.


1. As the gage number increases from 1 upward, the diameter and circular area decreases. Higher gage numbers indicate thinner wire sizes.
2. The circular area doubles for every three gage sizes. For example, gage number 10 wire has an approximately twice the area of gage no. 13 wire.
3. The higher the gage number and the thinner the wire, the greater the resistance of the wire for any given length.


The cross sectional area of a round wire is measured in circular mils.   A mil is a one-thousand of an inch, or 0.001 in. One circular mil is the cross-sectional area of a wire with a diameter of 1 mil.   The number of circular mils in any circular area is equal to the square of the diameter in mils.


Most of wire conductors are copper, but sometimes silver and aluminum are also used, copper is tinned with a thin coating of solder, which gives a silvery appearance, the wire can be solid or stranded.  Stranded wire is more flexible and less likely to break open.  Sizes for stranded wire are equivalent to the sum of the areas for the individual strands. For instance, two strands of no. 30 wire are equivalent to no. 27 solid wire.

Types of capacitors and its circuit applications

A Capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical device consisting of two or more conducting plates separated from one another by insulating material and used for storing an electric charge, capacitors are originally known as a condenser.  Aside from storing energy, a capacitor can also block the flow of direct current and permit the flow of alternating current and it can work to smooth out voltage fluctuations.

Electrical energy is stored in the capacitor between the conducting plates, with the external circuitry serving as the control mechanism for releasing the energy at the predetermined rate and time.  Whatever the physical construction of the device, the amount of electric charge  in coulombs (q) on the capacitor is directly proportional to the potential difference  in volts (V) between plates.

Capacitance (C) is the ability to store electrical charge, either with static electricity or by an electric current exhibits capacitance. Thus Capacitance is the measure of electric charge that can be stored per unit of voltage differential between the metallic conductors. The capacitance of a capacitor also depends on the size of the plates, their closeness together, and the nature of the material between them. In other words, it is directly proportional to the area of the plates and inversely proportional to the spacing between the two plates.

The unit of the capacitance is the “Farad” but because it is too large a unit for practical work, the MicroFarad (uF, one millionth of a Farad) and the Picofarad (pF, one millionth of a microfarad) are used. The higher the value, the more electrons the capacitor can store at any one time.


BLOCKING DC VOLTAGES  – The passage of direct current can be blocked by capacitor.  When this happen, a circuit designer can isolate a circuit element from a dc supply. In this application, there is a choice of dielectric, each of which will allow a certain amount of leakage current caused by a random passage of electrons through or around the dielectric.

COUPLING AND DECOUPLING – capacitor block direct current and they also seem to pass alternating current.  Capacitor is charged and then discharged of current as the AC voltage alternates from one section of the circuit to another or different circuits.

BYPASSING  –  As both blocking and coupling functions are simultaneously done, a capacitor can separate the dc and ac components  of a mixed signal. To do a bypass function, the capacitor is put in parallel with the circuit element to assure that the dc portion does not appear on the circuit element.

FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION  – the capacitor in this function is, as  in coupling function, employed to discriminate between signals. It should be recalled that the higher the capacitors capacitance value, the greater the current will be at any given frequency and that for a given capacitance, the higher the frequency, the more the frequency, the more current will be passed.

TIMING – The rate of charge that flows in and out of a capacitor is directly related to the capacitance (C) and the series of resistance (R) of the circuit. Thus, the selected R and C combination, otherwise known as time constant, determines the timing or speed of response of a circuit. On application can be seen in the time-delay relay.

SMOOTHING OUT VOLTAGES – Considering that unregulated power supplies are subject to transient peak and voltage surges (which can be damaging to the circuit components), capacitors are equipped with the ability to absorb these said peaks and pass on a steady voltage to a circuit. It is widely used to clean up voltage.

ENERGY STORAGE – capacitors can also be used to accumulate electrical energy from a low energy source over a long period of time. This is done by discharging the stored energy rapidly, allowing high current to perform tasks such as heating, welding or firing photoflash bulbs.

ARC SUPPRESSION – To reduce or eliminate interference caused by the rapid opening or closing of circuits (switches and relays), capacitor-resistor and capacitor-inductor combinations are used.  Such arching resulting from interrupting the current flow by such circuit radiate signal in the form of noise which can interfere with any broadcast reception. The capacitor can also prolong the life of the contacts of the switches and relays.


The working voltage or WV of a capacitor, is the maximum voltage that a capacitor can withstand before the dielectric layers in the component become damaged. At higher voltages, the current may simply arc between the plates. If a capacitor is inserted in a circuit with a higher input voltage than the indicated working voltage of the capacitor a spark may develop within the capacitor and punches through the dielectric material, leaving the component useless or shorted. As always it is a good idea to select a capacitor with a working voltage greater than the voltage in the circuit for safety.


he plate material in a ceramic capacitor is a silver compound that is fixed or deposited upon the surface of a dielectric. The dielectric is a ceramic form made of tantanium dioxide or a silicate compound which can be of disk or tabular shape. The overall capacitor assembly is coated with plastic material. Ceramic capacitor have a high dielectric constant that provides them with high working voltage ratings. That capacitance of these capacitors varies from 1 pF to 0.1 uF. They have a wider applications like filtering, coupling and decoupling, resonant circuit parameter and others.

PAPER CAPACITOR – It’s plates are made of aluminum or tin foil with a dielectric of paper that is impregnated (saturated) with an oil or wax compound. Such capacitors are non-polarized devices. Their capacitance range from 0.001 to 1 uf and their temperature coefficient is comparatively higher than those of the other types.

PLASTIC FILM CAPACITOR :These capacitors are manufactured from plastic films usually of the oriented crystalline type. The plastics used are thermoplastic films that have been extruded, stretched and heat treated. Moister has a little effect on the plastic films dielectric properties. This fact makes make the packaging of plastic film capacitors easier compared with other types. The electrical characteristics of these capacitors relate to the manufacturing process. There are 3 general classes of plastic film capacitors – polystyrene, polyester, and polycarbonates.

MICA CAPACITOR –several strips of metal foil, either aluminum, tin or copper, are sandwiched between thin sheets of mica which serve as the dielectric materials. Alternate strips of foil are connected to form the plate. These capacitors are found in the range of 1pF to 0.01 uF in capacitance and have a stable temperature coefficient characteristic. Its useful applications are in high frequency circuit.

ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR – These are capacitors whose dielectric layers are formed by an electrolytic method, and need not contain an electrolyte. The most common electrolytic capacitors are the aluminum electrolytic capacitors and tantalum electrolytic capacitors.

ALUMINUM ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS: consist of etched foils ( the anode and cathode foils) and paper separators rolled into a tabular form. During the assembly process, thin coating of aluminum oxide is deposited upon the surface of the anode foil and this coating becomes the dielectric material of the capacitor. The thickness of the oxide determines the working voltage rate of the capacitor which generally does not exceed 500volts.

TANTALUM ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS: Tantalum Capacitoruse tantalum metal foils and acid electrolytes. The oxide coating deposited upon the surface of their foils has greater dielectric constant than that of aluminum oxide. These capacitors are more rugged and have high temperature coefficient. However, their working voltage ratings are much lower compared with the first. Take note that both types of electrolytic are polarized devices that must be operated under Direct Current (DC) voltage condition. Their application ranges from consumer to entertainment.

VARIABLE CAPACITOR: This capacitor are also known as air dielectric variable (or tuning) capacitor. It consists of stationary plates (stator) and a set of a position that allows them to mesh with each other without touching. By rotating the shaft of this capacitor, the surface area directly opposite the stator plates varies, causing the capacitance to vary.

What is a Resistor ?

In many circuit applications, resistance must be inserted into the circuit in the purpose of reducing the current or to produce a desired IR voltage drop.  The component used for this are resistor and labeled with the letter R in the circuit diagrams.  Resistor are the most commonly found component in all electronic equipment, from a small AM radio to a color television receiver. The common type of resistor is the carbon resistor as shown in the image.


The two main characteristics of a resistor are its R in ohms and the wattage rating.  Resistors available values ranges from a fraction of an ohms up to many mega ohms.  The power rating can be as high as several watts or as low as 1/10 W.

The power rating of a resistor is important because it specifies the maximum wattage the resistor can dissipate without producing excessive heat that can damage the component and or other components in the circuit.  Dissipation means that the power is wasted as I2R loss. Since the result heat is not used, the generated heat which is usually too much can make the resistor burn open.

When power dissipation is about 5 watts or more wirewound resistors are used, specially in devices that require high current handling capability, heat dissipation and resistance stability and accuracy.  For 2W or less, carbon resistor are preferable because they are smaller and cost less.

Carbon resistors are most common in electronic equipment because they are smaller and cost less as compared to wirewound resistor, Usually higher values have smaller wattage because they have less current.

Both carbon and wirewound resistors can be either fixed or variable.  A fixed resistor have a specific R that cannot be adjusted, while a variable resistor can be adjusted for any value between zero ohms up to its maximum R value.

Carbon composition variable resistors are commonly used for control, such as the volume control in a radio receiver or the contrast control in a television receiver.  An application for a variable resistor is to divide the voltage from a power supply.

1. WIREWOUND RESISTOR:  Resistance wire such as manganin wrapped around an insulating core, Commonly used insulating materials are cement, porcelain, or just plain compressed paper.

The wire is bare, but usually the entire unit is encased in an insulator. The length of wire used and its specific resistivity determine the resistance of the unit.

Wirewound ResistorSince wirewound resistors are generally for low-resistance high-power applications, wirewound resistors are available in power ratings from 5W to several hundred watts, with resistance range of less than 1Ω to several thousand ohms. In addition, wirewound precision resistors are used where accurate, stable resistance values are require.

2. CARBON COMPOSITION RESISTOR: This type of resistor are made of finely divided carbon or graphite mixed with a powdered insulating material in the proportions needed for the desired value. The resistor element is usually enclosed in a plastic case for insulation and mechanical strength.

Joined to the two end of the carbon resistance elements are metal caps with leads of tinned copper wire for soldering the resistor connections into a circuits. Carbon resistors are commonly available in resistance values of 1/10, 1/8, ¼, ½, 1 or 2 watts.

3. CARBON FILM RESISTOR: Carbon film resistors are manufactured by depositing a carbon film on a ceramic substrate. In many ways semilar to carbon composition resistors, they can be interchange with each other, the cost is less than for the hot-molded carbon-composition type.
These are form by means of vacuum deposition, a process by which any of the number of different metal or metal oxide films are deposited on a suitable insulating mandrel or core.

Nickel and chromium are deposited on the alumina ceramic core and the unit is then subjected to laser trimming. Metal film resistors are laser trimmed or helixed to obtain the desired resistance value before the protective insulation coat is applied.


  1. METAL-OXIDE DEPOSITION — This process makes use of a chemical vapor deposite to a tin-oxide film onto a glass substrate. Although this tin oxide resistor is similar in performance to evaporated or sputtered metal film, the technique is obviously not capable of achieving the level of precision possible with other thin-film process.
  2. BULK METAL. — This process produces a flat instead of cylindrical elements. It is an expensive process but produces resistor with a tight tolerance and excellent temperature coefficient of resistance characteristics, used exclusively for ultra-precision applications. This process entails the laminations of metal foil to a substrate and later etched chemically to produce a serpentine rather than helical conduction path.
  3. THICK FILM — This process coats ceramic substrate with a glass-metal matrix material. Later, it is fired at an extremely high temperature to produce a metallic film. Unlike in other processes wherein the resistive elements are subjected to a very temperature in order to vaporize materials, the thick film process does it to cure.
  4. VACUUM DEPOSITION — Also known as evaporated metal film, it is the original metal film resistor manufacturing process. This techniques superheats a nickel chromium alloy wire by resistance or electron — beam heating in a vacuum. As the alloy evaporizes, it is deposited on ceramic substrates which are then loaded into a vacuum container. To achieve the resistance ranges, manufacturers make use of contaminants called dopants.
  5. SPUTTERING — This is a more recently developed techniques and closely related to vacuum deposition. It is likewise yields a product consisting of nichrome resistor on a ceramic substrate.5. CERMIT-FILM RESISTORS: These have a carbon coating fired onto a solid ceramic substrate.  The purpose is to have a exact or precise R values and greater stability with heat.  They are often made in a small square, with leads to fit a PC board.  A flat package with multiple leads can be used for several resistors in one unit.


    Variable resistors can be wirewound or a carbon type.  Inside the metal case, the control has a circular disk that is the carbon-composition resistance element.  Joined to the two end are the outside soldering-lug terminals 1 and 3.  The middle lug 2 is connected to the variable arm contacting the resistor element by a metal spring wiper.  As the shaft of the control is rotated, the variable arm moves the wiper to make contact at different points.

    When the contact moves closer to one end, the resistance decreases between this end and the variable arm.  The variable resistance is zero when the wiper contacts this end but is maximum with the variable arm  at the opposite end.  Between the two outside ends, the resistance is not variable but always has the maximum resistance of the control.


    In addition to having the required resistance value in ohms, a resistor should  have a wattage rating high enough to dissipate the I2R power produced by the current flowing through the resistance, without becoming too hot.  If a resistor becomes too hot because of excessive power dissipation, it can change appreciably in resistance value or burn.

    The power rating is a physical  property depending on the resistor construction, specifically physical size.

            1. The larger the physical size of the resistor indicates a higher power rating.

            2. Higher-wattage resistors can operate at higher temperature.

            3. Wirewound resistors are physically larger with higher wattage rating than carbon resistor.

    For both types, a higher power rating allows a higher voltage rating.  The rating gives the highest voltage that may be applied across the resistor without internal arching.  In wirewound resistors, excessive voltage can produce an arc between turns; in carbon resistors, the arc is between carbon granules.


    In some cases two or more resistors are combines in series or parallel to obtain a desired resistance value with a higher wattage rating as shown.

    series parallel resistors

    The total resistance depend on the series and parallel connections. However, the combination has a power rating equal to the sum of the individual wattage ratings, whether the resistors are in parallel or series. The reason is that the total physical size increases with each added resistor, Such combinations can be used to obtain a higher power rating.

    Figure a, the two equal resistors in series double the resistance. Also the power rating of the combination is twice the value for one resistor.Figure b, the two equal resistor in parallel have one-half the resistance. However the combined power rating is still twice the value for one resistor.

    Figure c, the series parallel combination of four resistors makes RT the same on each resistor. However, the total power rating is four times the value for one resistor.


    An open resistor reads infinitely high ohms. For some reason, infinite ohms is often confused with zero ohms. Remember though that infinite ohms means an open circuit. The current is zero but the resistance is infinitely high. Furthermore, it is practically impossible for a resistor to become short-circuited in itself. The resistor may be short circuited by some other part of the circuit, however, the construction of resistors is such that the trouble they develop is an open circuit, with infinitely high resistance in ohms.


How To Burn ISO Image File To An Optical Disc In Windows

An ISO image file is an exact representation of a CD, DVD or Blu-Ray Disc in a single archive file, these files are either downloaded online or created through an ISO image file app such as ImgBurn, BurnAware, ISODisk, ISO Recorder or other ISO image file creation apps. After creating or downloading ISO image file you can then mount it on a virtual CD/DVD drive as if it’s a real disc or burn it to disc and use it in replace of your original disc

How To Download Video From YouTube

If you often visit YouTube to watch online videos then you probably want to view it offline too or want to view it on other devices such as your phone. You want to view YouTube video offline especially if you have a very slow internet connection at home or want to view the video in HD format. Unfortunately, YouTube is designed to be viewed or watched on their website and not to be downloaded, that’s why you can’t find any download link for downloading videos on YouTube. Fortunately for us there are lots of software and websites that we can use as a downloader for YouTube videos.

Saving YouTube Video Using Online YouTube Download site

There are websites that caters in downloading YouTube video, all you have to do is copy the video URL and paste it on their download bar then clicking on the download button. To download video from YouTube follow these simple steps.

  1. Go to YouTube and play the video you want to download, copy the video URL from the YouTube webpage address bar as shown in the sample below.
  2. Go to and paste the YouTube video URL on the download bar and click on the download button, after clicking the download button you will be shown with available video format that you can select from as the video format to save such as FLV, MP4, 3GP and other video format. Click on the Video format you want on the Download link column and select where you want to save your video download.

    Aside from online YouTube download site, you can also download YouTube downloader software and install it on your computer, during installation watch out for any attempt to install toolbars by the installer. You can uncheck any checkbox that wants you to install toolbar that can possibly change your default search page.

Free YouTube Downloader

Free YouTube Downloader is a free tool that will let you download YouTube video. To install the app you have to visit Free YouTube Downloader website and download the app. After Installing the app all you have to do is copy the YouTube video URL from and paste it on the YouTube URL box downloader then select the output format such as MP4, FLV, Xvid or other video format you want. You can also download video as an mp3 audio instead of video format.

YTD Video Downloader

YTD Video Downloader is also a free tool for downloading video from YouTube, but if you want additional functionality of YTD Video Downloader such as automatic conversion of video and want to download multiple videos simultaneously then you have to upgrade the software to PRO version. The basic free functionality of the software is good enough for you to download videos unless you want additional downloading functionality then upgrade to PRO version. Downloading video in YTD YouTube Downloader is almost the same with any other video downloader all you have to do is copy the video URL from YouTube and paste it in the Paste URL box then click on download.

How to download YouTube Video using YTD video downloader

After downloading your video from YouTube try VLC Media Player to play your videosbecause this software support almost all video format.

How To Promote Windows Server 2008 To Domain Controller

When a windows server family is freshly installed on a computer it first work as a client computer or a standalone server. When you have a standalone server you can promote it as a domain controller by installing Active Directory Services (ADS) or Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) on a windows server 2003/2008 operating system respectively. By promoting a standalone server to a domain controller it then allows administrator to manage the entire network such as adding user accounts and client computers from a central location such as the windows server terminal.

If you work as a system administrator or a network administrator promoting a windows server machine is a common task.

Before Promoting Your Windows Server 2008

The server the administrator plan to promote must have a static IP address assigned to its Network Interface Card.

To begin promoting a computer with windows server 2008 installed to a domain controller.

Log in to Windows server 2008 with administrator account

Click on the Start Menu and type dcpromo on the Search box and press the enter key.

Wait for the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard to load.

On the Operating System Compatibility window click on the next button.

Select Create a new domain in a new forest radio button if the computer your installing the Active Directory Domain Services is the only domain controller in the network or select Existing forest radio button if there are other domain controller in the network.

On the “Name the Forest Root Domain” type the name of the new domain in the text box and click on the next button.

On the “Set Forest Functional Level” leave the default value as is, click on the next button to continue.

On the “Set Domain Functional Level” leave the default value as is and click on the next button to continue.

On the “Additional Domain Controller Options” make sure that DNS server checkbox is checked, click on the next button continue.

If for instance you have not assigned a static IP address on your Network Interface Card you’ll be prompted with the Static IP Assignment message box. Click on “No, I will assign static IP addresses to all physical network adapter” to manually assign static IP address to all network card but you have to restart Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard again. If you have already assigned static IP to all the network interface card you will not be prompted with this message.

Click Yes button to continue when the DNS warning box appear.

Select Database location, log file, and SYSVOL folder location in the field or leave the default as is, I recommend leaving the default value as is.

On the “Directory Services Restore Mode Administrator Password” type in your desired password on the Password and Confirm password box and click on the Next button to continue. This password will be used for restoring the Active Directory from backup in case of disaster

On the Summary windows review your current settings, when you click the Next button these settings will be applied to the Domain Controller. Click on the Next button to start the Active Directory Domain Controller Services installation process.

On the installation progress box check on the Reboot on Completion check box to automatically reboot Windows server 2008 machine when installation is completed successfully.

Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard in progress

Installation of Active Directory Domain Services is complete after Windows server 2008 restart


How to Set Up DHCP in Windows Server 2008

Configuring a DHCP server on your Windows 2008 server will allow you to configure client computer network setting at the DHCP server provided that the client computer is set to obtain an IP address automatically.

Before beginning to configure your DHCP server verify that:

The computer you want to configure DHCP has a static IP address assigned to it.

All existing disk volume on your server uses NTFS file system, NTFS file system are more secure than FAT32 file system since FAT32 don’t support file and folder compression, disk quotas, and file encryption.

Updated Windows Server 2008.

To begin configuring your Windows 2008 DHCP server

Click on Start then click on Administrative Tools and finally click on Server Manager.

Windows Server 2008 Administrative Tools

On the Server Manager Window right click on Role and then select Add Roles

Server Manager

On the Before You Begin Window click on Next button to continue

On the Add Roles Wizard Window check DHCP Server checkbox and click on the Next button to continue

On the Select Network Connection Bindings Window check the network connection to bind by clicking on the checkbox beside the network IP address then click on the Next button to continue

On the Specify IPv4 DNS Server Settings Window specify your DNS server, which is in this case is the same machine.


On the Specify IPv4 WINS Server Settings Window leave the default value as is just click on the Next button to continue

Specify IPv4 WINS Server Settings – Configuring DHCP

On the Add or Edit DHCP Scopes Window click on the Add button to add a DHCP scope

Add or Edit DHCP scopes – Configuring DHCP


After clicking on the Add button you now have to give values for the:

Scope Name: Give your scope a name

Starting IP Address: Enter the Start address or the beginning IP address you want client computer to use
Ending IP Address: Enter the End address or the last IP address you want client computer to use
Subnet Mask: Enter the network subnet mask, usualy with 254 usable IPs is enough, but if you have a larger network infrastructure with more than 254 client computers you can use other value such as to have a 510 usable IPs or to have 65,534 usable IPs.
Default Gateway (optional): Enter your network gateway, usually your router IP address or your internet router

Click on OK when your done, the preceeding screen just requires you to click on the next button and accept the default value

  1. Confirm your installation selection and click on the Install button
  2. After clicking the install button DHCP server will be installed on the machine, wait till the process is complete
  3. After the installation process is complete you can now start managing your DHCP server



How to Setup A Home Wireless Network

Using a wireless network in your home or office is more convenient than using a lan cable connected to a router or a switches. You can do all what a wired network can do such as sharing internet access, files sharing, printer sharing, online games, browse computers connected to your network and some other stuff what a wired network can do. A wired network cable can run up to hundred meters before signal is lost and requires a repeater while a wireless network will depend on the technology the router is using such as Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output or “MIMO” and Wireless-A / B/ G and N technology.

MIMO is a WIFI technology that uses multiple transmitter and reciever to create a robust signal that travels farther, MIMO uses multipath where signals bounces off walls and ceiling so it reduces dead spots on your home network, so with this technology on your router you’ll always have a good signal within your home network, so check the router you’ll be buying to have this technology.

After you have setup your wireless network you can now sit anywhere in your home using your wireless capable device such as your laptop browsing the internet or accessing your files on the other computer within your network, it is much convenient than a cable plugged into your laptop.

What you need to setup your home wireless network.


Wireless Router: Your wireless router will be responsible for transmitting the signal coming from your internet connection or whatever you’re accessing from other computer and broadcast it over the air, it’s also within the router where you will setup your internet connection, DHCP connection for automatic IP configuration on client computers, set your WIFI access key or “Passphrase” and other configuration required to have a WIFI connection. Some popular wireless router brands are Linksys, D-link, TP-Link, Netgear.

There are four different wireless networking technologies: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n while wireless G (802.11g) and Wireless N (802.11n) are the most common router technology, they offer excellent performance and are backward compatible with older WIFI devices.

Note: Some wireless router this days don’t show their wireless antenna because they use internal antenna.

2. Your operating System that Support Wireless networking.

Windows operating Systems such as Windows xp, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 fully support wireless networking. It is always recommended to update your windows operating system to the latest Windows update for security reasons although you still can setup your wireless connection even you don’t update your windows. Updating windows will secure you from hackers and viruses since you will be exposing your computer to the network or to the World Wide Web, also always update your antivirus definition and be sure to activate your windows firewall for maximum security. Remember that when you connect to the network or to the internet you will be exposing your computer to the people within your network or to the world wide web.

3.A broadband or DSL modem: Usually this is not required if you plan for a home network only and don’t want to be connected to the internet, but if you require an internet connection then a modem is required. Broadband or DSL modem are usually supplied by the Internet Service Provider and are not readily available to purchase in a typical computer shop. Many internet service providers this days offer wireless router/modem this means that a router and a modem in one device, in this case you don’t need to buy a separate wireless router.

4.Your Desktop computer with Wireless adapter and or Laptop computer.

Newer desktop computers specially branded ones are usually equipped with wireless adapter card and they are wireless ready PC’s, if your desktop computer is not equipped with wireless card then you have to buy a wireless adapter card in the form of PCI card or a USB, I suggest buying a USB wireless network adapter since you don’t have to open your computer to install the device, all you have to do is plug-in the USB to a USB port and you’re done.

It is easy to distinguish a PC with wireless card by just looking at the back of your computer if you see an antenna just like the antenna of a wireless router then it has a wireless adapter card. A laptop computer is usually equipped with a wireless adapter card and all you have to do is switch on the wireless adapter card on your laptop.

5. Router Wireless User Manual.
Familiarize your router by reading your router user manual.

Getting Ready
If all of the required to build a Home Wireless Network are available, then you can now continue in setting up your wireless network, follow the steps below in configuring your wireless network.

1. If you are connected to the internet disconnect your modem so that you are able to use the LAN port on your computer, skip this step if you don’t have internet connection.

2. Connect to your router by connecting the RJ45 connector of your LAN cable to the LAN port on your router and the other end to the LAN port on your desktop computer you should see the LED light up at the front panel of your router corresponding to the port number where you plug in the cable.

3. Connect your modem cable to the WAN or Internet port of your router and wait for a while, when your router is connected to the internet the WAN or the Internet LED at the front panel of your router should light up.

4.Connect to your router setting by opening your favorite internet browser and typing http:// and the ip address of the router at the address bar and typing the username and password. See list below for default username and password for different router brand name.

Router Brand Address Username password
TP-Link admin admin
D-Link admin admin
Linksys admin admin
3Com admin admin
Netgear admin Password

5. I will be using Linksys router as a guide, what you see on your router could be similar with mine, almost all router have almost the same setup.

Click on the Basic Setup under the Setup Tab, refer to your router user manual if you have different router , in this tab you can setup your internet connection, if you use DSL to connect to the internet then select PPPOE or ask your Internet Service Provider what credential you should put in the box.

Router Basic Setup

The IP address and Subnet Mask will be for the router IP address, if you want to change the default IP address then you can change it here.

DHCP Server : Set this to Enable to set the router as DHCP server it will be the router which give an IP address, subnet mask and Gateway to the Client PC connected to the router. Setting this to enable will spare you the hassle of setting each individual client pc I.P address.

Save your settings when your done

6. After setting the Basic Setup you now have to setup the wireless setting of your router, look for Wireless Tab on the router and select basic wireless settings.

Router Wireless setting

Network Mode : Select the wireless standard  to use for your network on the dropdown box such as Wireless-A / B /G or N. Select Wireless N or the default setting on your router.

Network Name (SSID) : The SSID is the network name shared among all points in a wireless network. The SSID must be identical for all devices in the wireless network. It is case-sensitive and must not exceed 32 characters you can use any of the characters on the keyboard. The SSID name is what you see when you scan for available wireless network.

SSID Broadcast : When scanning for available wireless network you’ll see the SSID of your network if the SSID broadcast is enable else set to disable if you don’t want to broadcast your router SSID.

Save your settings when your done

7. After you have setup the basic wireless settings, click the wireless security tab, in here you will be able to setup wireless security mode and passphrase.

Router security setting

Security Mode : Select the type of security for your Wifi such as WEP, WPA-Personal, WPA Enterprise, WPA2 Personal or WPA2 Enterprise. Select WPA2 personal for your wifi since WPA2 have the strongest encryption method.

Encryption : Select the wifi encryption type default encryption will do the job. The value for this could be TKIP or AES.

Passphrase: When someone detect your wifi and wanted to connect to your wireless LAN, they have to know the passphrase of your wifi in other word this will serve as the password for your network so that no unauthorized user will be able to join your network.

When you have finished setting up your router save your setting and restart your router. Disconnect the LAN cable to your desktop or laptop same with the router , on your Wireless enable devices such as your laptop or desktop try to scan your network by clicking wireless icon on the taskbar

In Windows 7 or whatever operating system you’re using, scan for wireless network, all available wireless network will be shown including those wireless network that don’t broadcast there SSID. Other network are those wireless network that don’t broadcast there SSID while those wireless network that broadcast there SSID are shown with the SSID name such as PHA-NET as shown in the Image.

Click on the wireless network that you want to connect to, click on connect and type the passphrase same as what you have type in the passphrase box in the security tab on your router, remember that it is case sensitive.

When you have successfully connected to your wireless router you will then be able to browse your network and browse the internet if you have connected a modem on your router and set the settings properly.

When you are unable to browse a particular network pc but you can see the name of the PC in your network neigborhood then the cause could be that the firewall on that pc is enabled or an antivirus software is preventing you from accessing this pc. This is for security reason but if you really need to access such pc you can disable the firewall or add your IP address on the security rules for allowed inbound and ourbound connection.

How to Enable or Disable JavaScript in Different Web Browser

JavaScript are programming language used by most website authors to add interactivity or to add functionality to their own sites such as polls, validating form and much more. With JavaScript disabled this interactive features or added functionality of many website are also disabled or cannot be executed by the browser. You can enable or disable your browser JavaScript by following these simple steps.


1. In Internet Explorer click on tool on the top menu.
2. Choose Internet Options.
3. Click on the Security tab.
4. Click on Custom Level
5. Scroll down until you see the section labeled ‘Scripting.’
6.To enable Javascript click on the Enable radio button.
7. To disable Javascript click on the Disable radio button.
8. Click on OK and refresh your browser to see the effect.


1. In Mozilla Firefox click on tool on the top menu.
2. Click on Option.
3. Select Content on the navigation tab.
4. Click on Enable Javascript checkbox to Enable, click on the checkbox again to uncheck it and disable javascript.


Enable or Disable javascript in Safari
1. Apple safari click on the Edit menu.
2. Select on Preferences.
3. Inside preferences click on the Security tab.
4. Click on Enable Javascript checkbox to Enable, click on the checkbox again to uncheck it and disable javascript.


1. Click on Customize and control google chrome
2. Click on Settings
3. Scroll down at the bottom of the page and click on show advance settings

4. Under privacy
5.Click on Content Setting and scroll down to JavaScript
6. To enable JavaScript click on “Allow all sites to run JavaScript (Recommended)” radio button.
7. To disable Javascript click on “Do not allow any site to run JavaScript”