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How To Setup Your PC As A Wireless Access Point In Windows 7

Do you have wireless devices such as laptop and smart phone and want it to browse the internet but don’t have a router to do the job? This is possible in Windows 7 provided that you have at least a wireless adapter and an Ethernet port connected to the internet or a USB device with 3G or 4G connections.

To setup your computer act as a Wireless Access Point (WAP) and let other Wi-Fi devices connect to it, first of you have to make sure that.

The computer you’re going to setup as a wireless access point has a wireless adapter and a Ethernet port or a USB device with 3G or 4G connection.

  1. To begin click on Start > Control Panel and click on Network and Sharing Center, if you can’t find Network and sharing center make sure that Category view is in “Large Icon” or “Small Icon”. In the Network and Sharing Center click on Change Adapter setting.
  2. In the Network Connection Panel you should see a Wireless network connection, this device will act as the access point and let other Wi-Fi devices connect to it. Aside from wireless network connection there should also be a local area connection that is connected to the internet or a USB 3G/4G connection.
  3. Go back to Network and Sharing Center panel and click on “Setup a new connection or network”. Under the Set Up a Connection or Network click on “Set up a wireless ad hoc (computer-to-computer) network Set up a temporary network for sharing files or an Internet connection” and click on the Next button.
  4. On the next screen click the Next button to continue.
  5. Next you’ll be ask to give your network a name and choose security options. The network name should contain 1 to 32 characters and it is case sensitive, the name you enter here will be the Wi-Fi network name you’ll see when you scan for available Wi-Fi network. Next select the security type and type in your desire security key or passphrase.Check the “Save this network” check box to save your network name on the Wireless network connection, unchecking this checkbox will remove your network name on the Wireless Network Connection list when you disconnect the network, so you have to set up again the Wireless ad hoc connection if you wish to reconnect the device to the network. Click the next button when you finished configuring your Wi-Fi access point.
  6. After clicking the next button Windows will prompt you that your network is ready to use.
  7. Turn on Internet connection sharing to share your internet connection with other Wi-Fi devices connected on your Wireless access point. To turn on Internet connection sharing right click on the “Local Area Connection” under the Network connection panel and click on “Properties” then click “Sharing” tab and check the “Allow other network users to connect through this computer’s Internet connection” checkbox then click the OK button or if you can see the “Turn on Internet connection sharing” shown in step 6 click on it to enable ICS.Internet connection sharing – network and sharing

    Note: After you have set up your pc as a wireless access point and yet you’re unable to connect to the internet please make sure that your PC firewall or your Antivirus is not blocking Internet Connection Sharing.

    Antivirus firewall setup

    Note: Android device might not see the Wireless Access Point you just created, you can also use third party software such as virtual router to share your internet with other Wi-Fi devices for better compatibility with other Wi-Fi devices.

How To Change or Add IP Address On Your Windows Machine

What Is An I.P Address

As an important distinction to identify a computer machine connected to a network an Internet Protocol (I.P) is used and not the machine itself.  Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) uses a 32 bit address to identify a machine on a network and to the network it is attached. IP address is the set of number we usually see on our workstation or terminals connected to the network such as 192.168.1.1, these IP address should be unique to every workstation to be able to establish a connection otherwise there would be an IP conflict on the network in which the machine is attached. IP addresses are 4 sets of 8bit for a total of 32 bits these bits are separated by period and are written out in their decimal equivalent.

The network Information Center (NIC) assigns the I.P address, but if not connected to the internet the network can determine its own numbering through DHCP or manually assigning a IP address.  There are five classes of I.P addresses with each used depending on the size of the network. These classes are Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E. The class can be determined from the first three (high-order) bits.

Class Leading Bits Network Local Address Start Address End Address
A 0 8 24 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255
B 10 16 16 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255
C 110 24 8 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255
D 1110 Multicast Address 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255
E 1111 Experimental 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

How to Change or Add IP Address

To be able to connect to your Local Area Network that don’t use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers you have to manually input the I.P address in your TCP/IP configuration on your Windows system but for server or router that is configured to use DHCP you don’t have to assign I.P address to your machine as the DHCP server will assign the I.P address automatically. There are instances that you may need to configure your system TCP/IP to be able to connect to your existing Local Area Network or to the internet, here are basic guide on how to change or add an IP address to your computer.

  1. In Windows Xp – Click on start > Control Panel then click on the classic view on the left pane, select Network connectionon the control panel list.
  2. In Windows 7 – Click on start > Control Panel In the view by:  on the upper right side of your control panel select large icon, then select Network and Sharing Center, on the left pane click on Change Adapter Settings and  click on Local Area Connection

  3. In Windows 8 – Right click on Start and select control panel, In the view by:  on the upper right side of control panel select large icon, Select Network and Sharing Center, on the left pane click on Change Adapter Settings and click on Ethernet.

Local Area Connection Configuration:

In the Local Area Connection status click on Properties, Inside the Local Area connection properties click on the networking tab and select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and then click on Properties.

Under General Tab click on Use the following IP address check box to be able to change or add an IP address.

IP Address: The IP address you want to give to your machine the IP address should be the same across your network except for the last sigment.

Subnet Mask: Enter your network subnet mask here example of a subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 or by just clicking on the field, windows will automatically add the subnet mask depending on the I.P address you put on the IP address field.

Default Gateway: If you connect to the internet through a router the I.P address of the router must be entered here or if you use proxy server to connect to the internet input the IP address of your proxy server on this field, for a local area connection only you can leave this field blank.

Prefered DNS server: Usually same with default gateway if you connect to the internet through a router you can put the router I.P address or your network proxy server on this field or you can leave it blank if your network is for local area connection only.

 

 

Commonly used abbreviations in optical, logic and microprocessor circuits

 

Abbreviation Description Abbreviation Description
ACC accept INH inhibit
ACK acknowledge INT interrupt
ADR address I/O input / output
ALU arthmetic logic unit LD load
BCD binary code decimel LOG 1 logical one
BCTR bit counter LOG Z logical zero
BIN binary LSB least-significant bit
BPS bits per second MAR memory address register
BUF buffer MM main memory
BUS bus MPX multiplex
B byte MR memory register
CAR carry MSB most significant bit
CC condition code MUX multiplexor
CE chip enabled μP microprocessor
CLK clock N negation
CLR clear OCT octal
COMP compare OP operation
CP clock pulse PAR parity
CR clock register PC program counter
CT count PE parity error
CTR counter PU pull up
CY cycle RAM random access memory
D data REG register
DEC decimal RES reset
DEL delay RO read out
DIN data in ROM read only memory
DOUT data out RUN run
DR data register SET set
DRAM dynamic random access memory SH shift
EN enable SRAM static random access memory
END end START start
EPROM electronic programmable read only memory STOP stop
ERASE erase STR storage
ERR error SYNC synchronisation
EXOR exclusive or TERM terminate
F function TO to (transfer)
FF flip-flop TP time pulse
FIFO first in – first out TRIG trigger
G gate WI write in
GEN generate WR write
GND ground
HEX hexidecimal

Electronic Component Symbols and Abbreviation

 

SYMBOL ABBREVIATION
A Ampere (AC rms or DC) a Ampere (peak) A/D Analog to digital AC Alternating current
AC/DC Alternating current or direct current
ADC Analog-to-digital converter AF Audio frequency Ah Ampere hour
AM Amplitude modulation
AM/FM Amplitude modulation or Frequency modulation
AWG American wire gauge
B Transistor Base electrode
B Magnetizing Flux density
BCD Binary coded decimal
BJT Bipolar junction transistor BV Breakdown voltage
BVCEO Breakdown voltage, collector-to-emitter junction reverse biased (base open)
BVCES Breakdown voltage, collector-to-emitter junction reverse biased (base shorted)
BVCOB Breakdown voltage, collector-to-base junction reverse biased (emitter open)
BW Bandwidth
c Centi (10 -2 )
C Capacitance or capacitor
C Transistor collector electrode
C (Q) Coulomb
CB Common base configuration
CC Common collector
CE Common emitter
CL Load capacitance
C O Output Capacitance
d Deci (10 -1 )
D/A Digital to analog
DC Direct current
DIP Dual in-line package
E Transistor emitter electrode
EHF Extremely high frequency
EHV Extra high voltage
ELF Extremely low frequency
EMF Electromotive force
EMI Electromagnetic interference
f Frequency
f ab Common base small-signal cutoff frequency
f ae Common emitter small-signal utoff frequency
FET Field effect transistor
FF Flip Flop
FM FM Frequency modulation
f osc Maximum frequency of oscillation
f r Frequency at resonance
G Conductance
G Giga (10 9 )
g m Small-signal transconductance
g M , g FE Static or DC transconductance
G M , G FE Large-signal transconductance
H Henry
H Magnetic field intensity, Magnetizing flux
h hecto (10 2 )
HF High frequency
h fb Common base small signal forward current transfer-ratio
h fe Common emitter small-signal forward current transfer-ratio (base input)
h FE Common emitter DC forward current transfer-ratio, current gain (IC/IB)
h rb Common base small signal reverse transfer voltage ratio (emitter input)
h rc Common collector small signal reverse transfer voltage ratio (base input)
h re Common emitter small signal reverse transfer voltage ratio (base input)
Hz Hertz
I Current
i Instantaneous current
I/O Input/output
I B Base current
IC Integrated circuit
I C Collector current
I CBO , I CO Collector cutoff current (emitter open)
I CEO Collector cutoff current (base open)
I CER Collector cutoff current (specified resistance base-emitter)
I E Emitter current
I EBO Emitter cutoff current (collector open)
I eff Effective current
I F Forward current (DC)
i Fr Forward recovery current (specified instantaneous value)
I O Output current (DC)
IR Infrared
I R Reverse current (DC)
i R Reverse current (peak)
i Rr Reverse recovery current (specified instantaneous value)
I S Secondary current
i surge Surge current
Z Zener current
ZK Zener knee current
I ZM Zener maximum current
ZT Zener test current
JFET Junction field effect transistor
K Coefficient of coupling
k kilo (10 3 )
kHz Kilohertz
kWh Kilowatt-hour
L Coil, inductance
LC Inductance-capacitance
LCD Liquid crystal display
LCR Inductance-capacitance-resistance
LDR Light-dependent resistor
LED Light emitting diode
LF Low frequency
L M Mutual inductance
LNA Low noise amplifier
LSI Large scale integration
m Milli (10 -3 )
M Mega (10 6 )
M Mutual conductance
MCU Microcontroller
MF Medium frequency
MHz Megahertz
MI Mutual inductance
mmf Magnetomotive force
MOS Metal oxide semiconductor
MOSFET Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor
MPU Microprocessor unit
N Number of turns of inductor/transformer
n Nano (10 -9 )
NC Normally closed
NC No connection
NO Normally open
NPN Negative-positive-negative
OP AMP Operational amplifier
p Pico (10 -12 )
P Power
p Instantaneous power
PAL Programmable Array Logic
PAM Pulse amplitude modulation
P ap Apparent power
P av Average power
PCB Printed circuit board
PCM Pulse-code modulation
P d Power dissipation of device (average)
PDM Pulse-duration modulation
PIV Peak inverse voltage
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PLL Phase locked loop
PM Phase modulation
PNP Positive-negative-positive
POT Potentiometer
P-P Peak to peak
PPM Pulse-position modulation
PRF Pulse repetition frequency
PRT Pulse repetition time
PWM Pulse width modulation
Q Charge, also quality
q Instantaneoush

Electronic Component Identification and Abbreviation

 

Abbreviation Description Abbreviation Description
AE aerial L inductor
B battery LK link
BB busbar LP lamp
C capacitor LS loudspeaker
CB circuit breaker M motor
CK clock ME meter
CON contactor MG motor generator
CSR controlled semicondustor rectifier MIC microphone
D diode MK morse key
EQ equaliser ML module
F fan MT telephone handset
FB ferrite disc or bead MX matrix
FC ferrite core PCC photoconductive cell
FL filter PEC photoelectric cell
FS fuse PL plug
FW field winding RE recording instrument or meter
G generator SD surge diverter of any type
H heater SE sealing end
HC heat coil SEM semaphore indicator
HD hydrophone SHW shunt winding
IC integrated circuit SRAM static random access memory
IREG induction regulator SW seires winding
ISL isolator TD transductor
K key TL telephone receiver
U unit
VB vibrator

Transistor Outline (T.O) Packaging

Package Image Image Internal Diagram
TO-3

Entirely made of metal with microchip mounted on its metal can base and then covered with a metal cap. TO-3 is designed to accommodate large heat sinks to dissipate heat and increase power handling capability.

transistor package - TO-3 transistor package - TO-3 transistor package - TO-3 diagram
TO-5 transistor package - TO-5
TO-8 transistor package - TO-8 transistor package - TO-3 internal diagram
TO-18

The tab is located 45° from pin 1. The lead diameter is nominally 0.45 mm, the diameter of the cap is 4.5-4.95mm (0.178-0.195 inches) and the overall width (not including the tab) is 5.4 mm. Ref. wiki

transistor package - TO-18 transistor package - TO-3 transistor package - TO-3 internal diagram
TO-36 transistor package - TO-36
TO-39 transistor package - TO-39
TO-46 transistor package - TO-46
TO-52 transistor package - TO-52
TO-66 transistor package - TO-66
TO-72 transistor package - TO-72
TO-92 transistor package - TO-92
TO-126 transistor package - TO-126
TO-202 transistor package - TO-202
TO-218 transistor package - TO-218
TO-220 transistor package - TO-220
TO-226 transistor package - TO-226
TO-254 transistor package - TO-254
TO-257 transistor package - TO-257
TO-258 transistor package - TO-258
TO-259 transistor package - TO-259
TO-264 transistor package - TO-264
TO-267 transistor package - TO-264

Personal Computer Acronyms and Definition

ACRONYM DEFINITION ACRONYM DEFINITION
2D Double Density 2DD Double-side Double density
2GL Second Generation Language 2HD Double-side High Density
2S2D Double Side, Double Density 2SHD Double Sided, High Density
3D Three Dimensional 3GL Third Generation Language
3D DDI 3D Device Dependent Interface 4GT 4 GB Ram Tuning
4GL 4th generation language A3D Aureal 3-Dimensional
ABI application binary interface ACE Advanced Computing Environment
ABS Apple Business Systems (Apple) ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
ACSM Application Control State Machine ADB Apple Desktop Bus
ADO ActiveX Data Objects ADSI Active Directory Service Interfaces
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port AIFF Audio Interchange File Format
ALU Arithmetic Logical Unit AML ACPI Machine Language
AMR Audio/Modem Riser ANSI American National Standards Institute
API application programming interface APIC Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange ARP Address Resolution Protocol
APM Advanced Power Management ASF Active Streaming Format
ASP active server page ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment ATAPI AT Attachment Packet Interface
ATM asynchronous transfer mode ATX Advanced Technology eXtended
AUI Attachment Unit Interface AVGA Advanced Video Graphics Array
AVI Audio Video Interleave BASIC Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Cc Carbon Copy (Mail) BCC Blind Carbon Copy (Mail)
BDC Backup Domain Controller BIOS Basic input/output system
BMP Bitmap BOF Beginning Of File
BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol BPB BIOS Parameter Blocks
BPI Bits Per Inch (HDD) CAD Computer Aided Design
CAL Common Application Language CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAM Content Addressable Memory CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering
CAT Continuous Asynchronous Transmission CDE Common Desktop Environment
CD Compact Disc CD-R Compact Disc Recordable
CD-ROM Compact Disc Read-Only Memory CD-RW Compact Disc Re-Writable
CDFS Compact Disc File System CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDF Channel Definition Format CG computer graphics
CGA Color Graphics Adapter CGA Column Grid Array
CGI Computer Graphics Interface CGI Common Gateway Interface
CHRP Common Hardware Reference Platform (AIM) CHS Cylinder Head Sector
CIFS Common Internet File System (TCP/IP) CIM computer integrated manufacturing
CIM Common Information Model CMC Computer Numeric Control
CNR Communications and Network Riser COBOL Common Business-Oriented Language
COM Component Object Model (Programming) COM Commercial (networking)
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture COSE Common Open Software Environment
COSS Common Object Service Specification CPN central processing node
CRC Cyclic redundancy check CRL Certificate Revocation List
CPU Central Processing Unit CSEL Cable SELect (EIDE, HD)
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
CSN Card Select Number (PNP) CSS Cascading Style Sheets
CTI Computer Telephony Integration CTS Clear To Send
D/A Digital-to-Analog DAA Digest Access Authentication (HTTP)
DAA Data Access Arrangement DAC DAC – Digital to Analog Converter
DAC Dual Attached Concentrator (FDDI) DAP Directory Access Protocol
DAS Dynamic Allocation Scheme (protocol) DAS Digital Analog Simulator
DASD Direct-Access Storage Device DB Database
DBA DataBase Administrator DBC Device Bay Controller
DBM Dual Bit Map DBM DataBase Manager (DB)
DBMS Database Management System DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Communication Equipment DCE Distributed Computing Environment
DCI Display Control Interface DCOM Distributed Component Object Model
DDE Dynamic Data Exchange DDF Data Description Field
DDK Device Development / Driver Kit (MS) DDL data definition language
DDM Distributed Data Management DDML Display Driver Management Layer
DDoS Distributed Denial Of Service DEF Design Exchange Format
DES Data Encryption Standard DIM Device Interface Module
DLC Data Link Control DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
DLL Dynamic Link Library DMI Desktop Management Interface
DML Data Manipulation Language DNS Domain Name System
DOM Document Object Model DOMF Distributed Object Management Facility
DOP Directory Operational Protocol DOS Disk Operating System
DPI Dot per inch DPMI DOS protected mode interface
DPMS Display Power Management Signaling DRC Design Rule Checks (CAD)
DRDA Distributed Relational Database Architecture DRF Data Recovery Field
DRM Digital Rights Management DS Directory Service
DSA Digital Signature Algorithm DSM Digital Storage Media
DTR Data Terminal Ready DVO Digital Video Output
DXF Drawing Exchange Format EA Extended Attribute (OS/2)
EAB Enterpreise Access Builder (IBM, Java) EASI Enhanced Asynchronous SCSI Interface
EBCDIC xtended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EDA Electronic Design Automation (RL, IC)
EDD Enhanced Disk Drive EDD Enterprise Data Distribution (ENS, Banyan, VINES)
EDI Electronic Data Interchange EDID Extended Display Identification Data (VESA, DDC)
EDIF Electronic Design Interchange Format EDO Extended Data Out (RAM, DRAM, IC)
EDP Electronic Data Processing EGA Extended Color Graphics Array
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter EHCI Enhanced Host Controller Interface
EIDE Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics EIO Extended InputI/Output
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture ELF Executable and Linkable Format (Unix, OS/2)
EMB Extended Memory Block EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMF Extended metafile EOF End Of File
EPP Enhanced Parallel Port ESDI Enhanced Small Disk Interface
ESDI Enhanced Standard Device Interface EUI Extended Unique Identifier
EVC Enhanced Video Connector FAT File Allocation Table
FCB File Control Block FD Floppy Disc
FDC Floppy Disk Drive Controller FDD Floppy Disc Drive
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface FDO Functional Device Object
FoIP FAX over Internet Protocol FPA Floating-Point Accelerator (Hardware)
FPA Function Point Analysis (programming) FPU Floating Point Unit (CPU)
FR Frame Relay FSB Front Side Bus
FSD File System Driver FSRTL File System RunTime Library
FTP File Transfer Protocol FTS Fault Tolerant System
GART Graphic Address Re-mapping Table GDI Graphical Device Interface
GDT Global Descriptor Table GIF Graphics Interchange Format
GKS Graphical Kernel System GNL General Public License
GPIB General-Purpose Interface Bus GPIO General Purpose Input/Output
H/W Hardware HCI Host controller Interface
HDC Hard Disk Controller HDD Hard Disk Drive
HDL Hardware Description Language HDLC High-level Data Link Control (ISO)
HDT Host Digital Terminal HEC Header Error Control
HID Human Interface Device HIPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HMA High Memory Area HMI Human-Machine Interface
HPFS High Performance File System HRTF Head Related Transfer Function
HSFS High-Sierra File System HSM Hierarchical Storage Management
HSSI High-Speed Serial Interface HSTP High Speed Transport Protocol
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTPC Home Theater Personal Computers
ICC Integrated Communication Controller ICU ISA Configuration Utility
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics (HDD) IE Internet Explorer
Indeo Intel Video Technology IP Internet Protocol
IPI Intelligent Peripheral Interface IrLAP Infrared Link Access Protocol
IrLMP Iinfrared Link Management Protocol IRP I/O Request Packet
IRQ Interrupt Request ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISM Interface Subscriber Module ISO International Standards Organization
ISR Interrupt Service Routine IT Information Technology
JAM Java administration server KDT Keyboard Definition Table
LAN Local Area Network LBA Logical Block Address
LFN Long File Name LP Laser Printer
LP Logical Partition LPT Line PrinTer
LU Logical Unit LUN Logical Unit Number
MAC Media Access Control MADK Microsoft ActiveX Development Kit
MAPI Messaging Application Programming Interface MAS Multiple-Address Space
MCA Micro Channel Architecture MCGA Multi Color Graphics Array
MCI Media Control Interface MCI Multimedia Control Interface
MDK MODEM Developers Kit MDL Memory Descriptor List
MFP Multi-function Peripheral MFT Master File Table
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIS Management Information System
MMC Microsoft Management Console MMHID MultiMedia Human Interface Device
MMIO Memory Mapped I/O MMU Memory Management Unit
MPIC Multiprocessor Interrupt Controller MPPE Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption
MRCI Microsoft Real-time Compression Interface MSCDEX Microsoft CD-ROM Extensions
MSCS Microsoft Cluster Server MSDL Microsoft Download Library
MSDN Microsoft Developer Network MS-DOS Microsoft disk operating system
MSMQ Microsoft Message Queue Server MTD Memory Technology Driver
MTS Microsoft Transaction Server MTU Maximum Transmission Unit
MTU Maximum Transfer Unit NBNS NetBIOS name server
NC Network Computer NCB Network Control Block (LAN)
NCP Netware Core Protocol NCS Network Computing System
NCU Network Control Unit NDIS Network Device Interface Specification
NDS Netware Directory Service NDS Novell Directory Service
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface NETBIOS Network Basic Input/Outputs System
NFS Network File System NGIO Next Generation Input / Output
NIC Network Interface Card NIT Network Information Table
NIU Network Interface Unit NNI Network Node Interface
NOS Network Operating System NPI Network Printer Interface
NT New Technology NTDS Windows NT Directory Service
NTFS New Technology File System NTLM Windows New Technology LAN Manager
NTP Network Time Protocol NTS/E Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition
OCX OLE Control eXtensions (MS) ODAPI Open Database Application Programming Interface
ODB Object-oriented Database ODBC Open Database Connectivity
ODI Open Datalink Interface ODSI Open Directory Services Interface
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer ODA Open Document Architecture
OEX OLE System Control OHCI Open Host Controller Interface
OLE Object Linking & Embedding OMAP Open Multimedia Application Platform
OMT Object Modelling Technique OOA object-oriented analysis
OOAD Object-oriented Analysis And Design OOD Object-oriented Design
OODB Object-oriented Database OOP Object-oriented Programming
OS Operating System OSA Open Scripting Architecture
OSF Open Software Foundation OSI Open System Interface
OSI Open Systems Interconnection PABX Private Automatic Branch eXchange
PAC Privilege Attribute Certificate (DCE) PC Personal Computer
PC-DOS Personal Computer-Disk Operating System PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCI PM PCI Power Management [specification] PCIC PC Card I/O Cards
PCP Printer Control Protocol PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDC primary domain controller PDF Portable Document File
PDK Peripheral Developers Kit (MS) PDL Page Description Language
PDO Physical Device Object PIC Programmable Interrupt Controller
PIC MIcro Peripheral Interface Controller Microcontroller PID Process Identifier
PIF Program Information File PIO Programmed Input/Output
PIT Programmable Interrupt Timer PKT Partition Knowledge Table
PLI Programming Language Interface PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PPTP Point-to Point Tunneling Protocol PS/2 Personal System/2
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit PVM Parallel Virtual Machine
PVP Packet Video Protocol QRSL Quad Rambus Signal Level
QVGA Quarter Video Graphic Array RAID Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks
RAW Read and Write RDA Remote Database Access
RFID Radio Frequency Identification RIFF Resource Interchange File Format
RIMM Rambus Inline Memory Module RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RPC Remote Procedure Call RSX Realistic Sound eXperience (Intel, audio)
RT Remote Terminal RT Real-Time
RTC Real-Time Clock RTF Rich Text Format
RTOS Real Time Operating System RTS Request To Send
RWS Remote WinSock (Windows, TCP/IP) S/PDIF Sony Philips Digital Interface
S/W Software SA Structured Analysis
SAA Systems Application Architecture SAM SCSI-3 Architecture Model
SAP Service Advertising Protocol (protocol) SAP Service Access Point (networking)
SBP Serial Bus Protocol SCAM SCSI Configured AutoMatically (SCSI)
SCID Service Channel ID SCM Software Configuration Management
SCP System Control Program (OS) SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SD Structured Design SD Shared Disk
SDK Software Developer’s Kit SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control
SDP Service Discovery Protocol SDU Service Data Unit
SETP Stream Environment Transport Protocol SIPC Simply Interactive Personal Computer
SIR Serial Infrared SMART Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology
SMB System Management Bus SMI System Management Interrupt
SNA Systems Network Architecture SPI Serial Peripheral Interface
SPID Service Profile Identifier SPS Shock Protection System
SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange SQL Structured Query Language
SSA Serial Storage Architecture SSI Small Scale Integration
SSI Server-Side Include SSL Secure Socket Layer
SSP Serial Storage Protocol STD Suspend To Disk (BIOS, ACPI)
SVG Scalable Vector Graphics SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
SVID System Vendor Interface Definition (IDentification) SXGA Super Extended Graphic Array
SXVGA Super Extended Video Graphics Array TD-CDMA Time Division-Code Division Multiple Access
TDI Transport Driver Interface TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TIFF Tagged Image File Format TLD Top Level DOMAIN (Internet, ICANN)
TMDS Transmission Minimized Digital Signal TREC Texture and Rendering Engine Compression
TSR Terminate and Stay Resident TWAIN Technology Without An Important Name
TXD Transmission Data UAS User Account System
UDP User Datagram Protocol (Internet) UFS Unix File System (Unix)
UHCI Universal Host Controller Interface UI User Interface
UIMS User Interface Management System ULP Upper Layer Protocols
UML Unified Modeling Language UNC Universal Naming Convention
UNI User Network Interface UPC Usage Parameter Control
UPS Unix Print Services (Unix) UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
URB USB Request Block (USB) URL Uniform Resource Locator
USB Universal Serial Bus VAFC VESA Advanced Feature Connector
VB Visual Basic VBA Visual BASIC for Applications
VBE Visual BASIC Editor (MS, VB) VBE VESA BIOS Extension
VBX Visual Basic Extension VC Virtual Channel
VCD Video Compact Disk VDD Virtual Device Driver
VDIF Video display Information Format VDM Virtual DOS Machine
VDM Virtual Device Manager VDMA Virtual Direct Memory Access
VDMAD Virtual Direct Memory Access Device VESA Video Electronics Standard Association
VFS Virtual File System VGA Video Graphics Array
VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language VIP Video Information Provider
VM Virtual Machine VMS Virtual Memory System
VMTP Versatile Message Transaction Protocol VOD Video On Demand
VPE Video Port Extension VPI Virtual Path Identifier
VpicD Virtual Programmable Interrupt Controller Device (PIC) VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language
VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method VSD Vendor Specific Driver
VUDA VESA Unified Graphics Architecture VUMA VESA Unified Memory Architecture
VVIDD VESA Video Interface for Digital Display VxD Virtual Device Driver
VXI VMEbus Extension for Instrumentation WAIS Wide Area Information Server
WDL Windows Driver Library WDM Windows / Win32 Driver Model
WDS Wireless Distribution System (Joint Common Database) WDS Windows Deployment Services (Microsoft)
WDMCSA Windows Driver Model Connection and Streaming Architecture WHIIG Windows Hardware Instrumentation Implementation Guideline
WHQL Windows Hardware Quality Laboratory WIA Windows Image Acquisition
WINS Windows Internet Naming Service WinSock Windows Sockets
WLL Wireless Local Loop WMA Windows Media Audio
WMF Windows Meta-File WMI Windows Management Instrumentation / Interface (MS, Windows, WMI, CIM)
WORM Write-Once Read-Many WOSA Windows Open System Architecture (MS)
WPS Windows Printing System WRAM Windows Random Access Memory
WS Workstation WSH Windows Scripting Host
WSP WinSock Proxy WSS Windows Sound System
XCOFF eXtended Common Object File Format (Unix) XGA eXtended Graphics Array
XHTML eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language XMS eXtended Multiprocessor operating System (OS)
XMS Extended Memory Specification ZAK Zero Administration Kit (Microsoft)
ZAW Zero Administration for Windows ZTAT Zero Turnaround Time (Hitachi)

How to clean up your hard drive using Windows disk cleanup

As we use our computer the hard drive of our PC accumulate temporary files overtimes. These temporary files are created when you run a particular program and delete it when you close the program normally. Temporary files are used by the system especially when the program you execute cannot allocate enough memory to do its task. Your Internet browser also creates temporary files when you browse the internet and overtime this file amasses on the computer hard drive and slows down your computer.

Ideally, once a week is good enough for you to run disk utilities to remove these temporary files and cleanup your trash bin on your drive, by doing this, aside from making your computer healthy you also regain the space on your drive used by this temporary files. Using Windows Disk cleanup utility can do these job easily and also other third party software such as ccleaner is also a good choice in cleaning your computer temporary files.

In this tutorial includes
Using Windows Disk Cleanup in Windows Xp
Using Windows Disk Cleanup in Window 7
Using Windows Disk Cleanup in Windows 8

Step by step guide in using Windows Disk Cleanup in Windows Xp
Click on Start >> Run, under the RUN command box type “cleanmgr.exe” without the quotes.
Under Disk Cleanup tab check on Download Program Files, Temporary Internet Files, Recycle Bin and Temporay Files, you can also check other files to delete by just clicking on the checkbox and then click on OK button.

Disk Cleanup More Options

  1. Windows Component – Click to start Windows Component Wizard which you can add or remove windows component, if you are not using a particular component, you can save disk space by removing it.
  2. Installed Programs – Click to open Add or Remove Programs which you can use to remove installed program. If you are not using a particular program, you can save disk space by removing it.
  3. System Restore – Click to open System Restore, which you can use to remove saved system restore points. If you have several system restore points, you might not need the older one, and you can save space by removing them. The Clean up button purges all but the most recent system restore point on the specified drive.

    Step by step guide in using Windows Disk Cleanup in Windows 7

    1.Click on Start >> Run, under the RUN command box type “cleanmgr.exe” without the quotes.
    2.Select the drive you want to cleanup and click on OK.
    3. Under Disk Cleanup tab check on Download Program Files, Temporary Internet Files, Offline webpages, Recycle Bin and Temporay Files, you can also check other files to delete by just clicking on the checkbox and then click on OK button.

    Disk Cleanup Other Options

    1.Clean up system files – Clicking this button deletes previous Windows installations, Windows Defender files, and Windows upgrade log files that you might no longer need.

    2. View Files – Clicking this button shows you the content of your PC Downloaded Program files.

    Step by step guide in using Windows Disk Cleanup in Windows 8

    1.Right click on Start by sliding your mouse pointer at the lower left edge of your screen then click on Run, under the RUN command box type “cleanmgr.exe” without the quotes.

    2.Under Disk Cleanup tab check on Download Program Files, Temporary Internet Files, Offline webpages, Recycle Bin and Temporay Files, you can also check other files to delete by just clicking on the checkbox and then click on OK button.

    Disk Cleanup Other Options.

    1.Clean up system files – Clicking this button deletes previous Windows installations, Windows Defender files, and Windows upgrade log files that you might no longer need.

    2.View Files – Clicking this button shows you the content of your PC Downloaded Program files.

How to Use System Restore in Windows 7

The use of system restore is to restore your computer system files in its earlier state or to the state when your computer works perfectly. There are times when you install software or driver to your system when suddenly your computer behave erratically. Maybe your first step in solving this problem is to rollback the driver you have just installed and uninstall the software that you think that might cause the problem, but what if this does not solve the problem. Your next step could be to use the system restore by windows to restore your computer to its earlier state. System restore does not affect your personal files such as your email, document or photos. In Windows 7 system restore can restore image from backups stored on hard disks, just like the restore points created by system protection. Even though system image backups contain both your system files and personal data, your data files won’t be affected by System Restore.

Using system restore requires that you logged in as an administrator otherwise your not able to do system restore on your system. To quickly check if your logged in with an administrator privilege double click the date and time located at the lower right of your windows 7 desktop or you can click start >> run and type “timedate.cpl” and click on the ok button.

If you are not logged in with an administrative privilege you’ll see a message similar to the error messege shown on the image below but if you are logged in with administrator privilege you will be able to continue in changing the time and date of your computer.

To start system restore Click on Start button then right click on Computer and then clicking properties. In the left pane of “View basic information about your computer” click on system protection.

How to create a System Restore point

To create a System Restore point, Click the System Protection tab, and then click Create button. In the System Protection dialog box type a description of the restore point you are about to create (as shown in the image labeled 1) and then click create.

Thats it you have just created your System restore point.

How to Restore your previously created system restore point

To undo system changes to your computer or restore your computer to previous state using system restore, Click the System Protection tab, and then click System Restore button. In the System Restore dialog box click on Choose a different restore pointso you can choose which restore point to restore then click on Next.

Here you can select the restore point that you want in the list also you can click on the Show more restore point checkbox to list all the restore point that you have created, scheduled restore point that windows 7 system restore have created and all the restore point that have been created automatically during the installation of certain softwares are all listed here. Click on Next button when you have chosen your restore point.

In the “Confirm your restore point” screen you are being ask to confirm your choice of system restore. When you’re completely sure that you have selected the correct restore point to restore then click on Finish button to confirm.